Start Preparing For “THE SINGULARITY.” There is a 5% to 10% chance it will be here in five years. Part 2

April 1, 2023

Written by Ralph Losey with some help from ChatGPT-4. Illustrations by Losey using Midjourney or Dall-E.

This is the conclusion to this blog article, which I split into two parts for ease of human reading. Please read part one first.

The Likely Impact of the Singularity on Lawyers and the Legal System

The emergence of super-intelligent Ai could fundamentally transform various aspects of the legal profession, from legal research and drafting to dispute resolution and ethical considerations.

First, the roles of legal professionals would likely undergo a significant shift as Ai systems become more capable and sophisticated. Lawyers, judges, paralegals and other legal practitioners would need to adapt to working closely with AI systems, leveraging their strengths and insights to enhance their practice. Ai tools could handle tasks such as case management, legal research, and document drafting more efficiently and effectively than humans, freeing up legal professionals to focus on higher-level strategic thinking, negotiation, and advocacy.

Moreover, the role of legal professionals may shift toward more human-centric skills, such as empathy, creativity, and cultural awareness. These skills will remain valuable even as Ai systems take on a more prominent role in legal practice. As a result, the focus of legal education and training may need to be restructured to incorporate Ai-related topics and emphasize the development of complementary skills that set human practitioners apart from Ai systems.

Second, the nature of legal services could be transformed by the Singularity, with new Ai-driven tools and processes emerging to address various legal challenges. Ai systems might be able to analyze vast amounts of data, identify patterns, and generate creative solutions to complex legal problems that were, despite the progress of predictive coding, previously beyond most human reach. This could lead to the development of new legal strategies, more accurate predictions of case outcomes, and innovative approaches to dispute resolution.

In addition, the Singularity might give rise to new forms of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) that leverage advanced Ai capabilities. For instance, Ai-mediated negotiation platforms could facilitate communication between parties and propose fair, data-driven settlements. Ai-driven arbitration systems might be able to analyze complex legal disputes and deliver unbiased, well-reasoned decisions more quickly and cost-effectively than traditional arbitration processes. As an AAA certified Arbitrator myself I have an especially keen interest in this. Ai systems might someday soon be able to autonomously handle all aspects of dispute resolution, developing entirely new processes and approaches that leverage their superior cognitive abilities. This can happen in the courts too, but I predict it will have in private aberrations first.

Along those lines, and including pre-suit interventions, Ai systems could analyze and understand the complexities of human emotions, motivations, and values, allowing them to facilitate dispute resolution in ways previously unimaginable. They might create dynamic, adaptable legal frameworks that evolve in real-time, anticipating and addressing emerging conflicts before they escalate. The Singularity in ADR could potentially result in unheard of efficiency, accuracy, and fairness, as AI systems resolve disputes with insight and creativity beyond human capabilities. With super Ai in the hands of skilled attorneys, we should be able to resolve most disputes before they mature into claims and lawsuits; nip them in the bud. This may seem far out, but based on my experience, I believe this is a near certainty.

Third, the Singularity could have significant implications for access to justice and the democratization of legal services. Ai-driven legal tools could potentially make legal advice and representation more accessible and affordable for individuals and small businesses. By automating routine tasks and streamlining complex processes, Ai systems might lower the cost of legal services and improve the efficiency of the justice system.

However, this democratization of legal services also raises concerns about the ethical implications of Ai-driven legal practice. Ensuring that Ai systems adhere to legal and ethical standards, respect individual rights, and behave responsibly will be paramount. Legal professionals and regulators will need to grapple with questions surrounding the transparency, fairness, and accountability of Ai in the legal domain. This will lead to new types of legal work and new employment opportunities for lawyers, judges and ADR specialists,

The Singularity has the potential to bring about profound changes in the practice of law and the legal system as a whole. Legal professionals, educational institutions, and policymakers need to adapt to this new landscape, and quickly, by developing complementary skills, embracing Ai-driven tools and processes, and addressing the ethical challenges posed by super-intelligent Ai. By taking these steps now, not five years from now, the legal profession can navigate the transformative impact of the Singularity. Law and lawyers can harness the power of Ai to enhance access to justice and improve the quality of legal services for all.

What Lawyers and Judges Should Do Now to Prepare for the Singularity

If the Singularity occurs, there is no doubt it will drastically change the way disputes are resolved and have a huge impact on the roles of ADR professionals, mediators, arbitrators, special masters, judges, lawyers, and the general public (potential litigants one and all). Each group should prepare for this possibility by focusing on adapting their skills, understanding the evolving landscape, and embracing collaboration with AI systems.

  1. ADR Professionals (including Arbitrators, Special Masters and Mediators):
  • Continuous Learning: ADR professionals should stay informed about advancements in Ai and how they impact dispute resolution processes. This includes understanding new technologies, tools, and methodologies that emerge as Ai continues to evolve.
  • Develop Complementary Skills: ADR professionals should focus on honing skills that complement Ai systems, such as empathy, cultural awareness, and creativity. These human-centric skills will remain valuable even as Ai takes on a more prominent role in dispute resolution.
  • Collaborate with AI Systems: ADR professionals should embrace the opportunity to work with Ai systems, leveraging their strengths and insights to enhance their practice. This might involve using AI tools to analyze complex data, facilitate communication, or generate creative solutions to disputes. It could be a great boon to mediators everywhere.
  1. Judges and Lawyers:
  • Legal Education Reform: Legal education should be restructured to incorporate Ai and technology-related topics. Judges and lawyers should be equipped with the knowledge and skills necessary to navigate an Ai-driven legal landscape.
  • Emphasize Ethical Considerations: As Ai plays a more significant role in the legal profession, judges and lawyers must focus on ethical considerations, ensuring that Ai systems are used responsibly and adhere to legal and ethical standards.
  • Adapt Practice: Judges and lawyers should be prepared to adapt their practice as Ai becomes more prevalent in the legal field. This might involve using Ai tools for case management, legal research, and drafting, as well as collaborating with Ai systems to analyze complex issues and make informed decisions.
  1. General Public:
  • Increase Ai Literacy: The general public should develop a basic understanding of Ai and its implications for various aspects of society, including the legal system and dispute resolution processes. This knowledge will help them make informed decisions and engage with Ai systems effectively.
  • Foster a Culture of Adaptability: As Ai continues to reshape the world, the general public should embrace adaptability and be open to change. This mindset will enable them to navigate an Ai-driven future with resilience and creativity.
  • Advocate for Fair and Transparent Ai Systems: The general public should advocate for Ai systems that are fair, transparent, and accountable. This will help ensure that Ai-driven dispute resolution processes are accessible, equitable, and respect the rights of all individuals involved.

Preparing for the Singularity involves continuous learning, developing complementary skills, embracing collaboration with Ai systems, and advocating for fair and transparent Ai-driven processes.

What About Ten Years After?

Looking further into the future, what might the Law be like ten years after the Singularity, be that 2033, 2065 or whenever. I was able to prompt some pretty far-out imaginations from 4.0. I wonder what 5.0 will come up with it, or whether 6.0 might be sentient? Here’s a few of the best things that ChatGPT-4 has envisioned for ten years after the Singularity. They are listed in order of probability. By the way, I don’t necessarily agree with the low probability rankings. I think our young Ai friend is too conservative, or maybe better put, not yet imaginative enough.

For instance, I think that Ai judges are a near certainty, at least by ten years after. I might even be able to design and implement one now, at least with the help of a team of fellow humans and a decent, not yet super-intelligent Ai. Little baby 4.0 might even be able to do it. After all, he scored in the top 10% of the Bar Exam. How many human judges can say that? The main obstacles now may be governmental and political, not technical. If we go that route, and we surely will, especially for small matters, I recommend there be a qualified right to appeal to a human, but I am admittedly prejudiced. Mark my words, some areas of adjudication, especially arbitration, are likely to be fully automated well before any Singularity. Do Not Pay is just the start.

  1. AI-assisted legal practice (High Probability): In this scenario, AI systems become indispensable tools for legal professionals. They handle routine tasks, such as legal research, document drafting, and case management, freeing up lawyers to focus on strategic thinking, negotiation, and advocacy. AI tools also facilitate more accurate predictions of case outcomes and generate innovative legal strategies. Legal professionals work alongside AI systems, leveraging their complementary skills and insights.
  2. AI-driven alternative dispute resolution (Moderate Probability): The Singularity could lead to the widespread adoption of AI-driven ADR processes, including AI-mediated negotiation platforms and AI-powered arbitration systems. These tools could enable faster, more cost-effective, and unbiased resolutions of disputes, transforming traditional litigation and arbitration practices.
  3. Improved access to justice (Moderate Probability): AI-driven legal tools might make legal advice and representation more accessible and affordable for individuals and small businesses. By automating routine tasks and streamlining complex processes, AI systems could lower the cost of legal services and improve the efficiency of the justice system, ultimately enhancing access to justice for a broader segment of the population.
  4. AI-guided legislation and regulation (Low to Moderate Probability): AI systems could be employed in drafting legislation and regulatory frameworks, leveraging their ability to analyze vast amounts of data, predict potential consequences, and optimize policies for societal well-being. This could lead to more effective, evidence-based, and adaptable legal frameworks that address emerging challenges, such as climate change, cybersecurity, and inequality.
  5. Autonomous AI legal entities (Low Probability): In this scenario, AI systems might evolve to become autonomous legal entities, capable of representing themselves or other AI systems in legal disputes. This would raise novel legal questions surrounding the rights and responsibilities of AI entities, as well as the ethical and practical implications of AI-driven legal practice.
  6. AI judges (Low Probability): AI systems could potentially take on the role of judges, analyzing complex legal disputes and delivering unbiased, well-reasoned decisions based on vast amounts of legal data and precedents. However, the adoption of AI judges would require significant changes in the legal system and pose challenges related to transparency, fairness, and accountability.
  7. Post-human legal system (Very Low Probability): In this far-out scenario, the Singularity leads to a radical transformation of the legal system, with AI systems replacing most, if not all, human roles in the legal profession. AI-driven legal practice could become the norm, and human legal professionals might be relegated to niche areas or become obsolete. This scenario raises existential questions about the nature of law, justice, and human values in a post-human legal landscape.

While these scenarios represent a range of possible futures, the actual outcome will depend on a variety of factors, including the pace of AI development, the societal response to AI-driven legal practice, and the ethical considerations that shape the deployment of AI in the legal domain.



The Singularity has the potential to bring about profound changes in all of society, including in the practice of law and the legal system. Legal professionals, educational institutions, and policymakers will need to adapt to this new landscape by developing complementary skills and embracing Ai-driven tools and processes. We will also need to address the ethical challenges posed by super-intelligent Ai.

By taking these steps, the legal profession can navigate the transformative impact of the Singularity. Together we can harness the power of Ai to enhance access to justice for all. We can improve the quality of legal services for everyone, from the biggest corporations and governments, to small businesses, to all individuals, rich and poor. No doubt religions will spin off from the Singularity too, especially as it grows ever more intelligent and powerful. But, I for one will be happy to remain just a friend, not a worshiper or adherent.

Start Preparing For “THE SINGULARITY.” There is a 5% to 10% chance it will be here in five years. Part 1

March 31, 2023

Written by Ralph Losey with some help from ChatGPT-4. Illustrations by Losey using Midjourney or Dall-E.

Chat GPT-4 now estimates, and I agree, that there is a 5-10% chance that The Singularity will occur in the next five years. Considering the profound implications, a possibility as high as 10% is motivating as hell. We need to intensify our preparation efforts, starting now. In this article I will explain what is likely to happen, especially to the Law, and what we should do to prepare.

The GPT prediction is based on data that ended in September 2021. Lots has happened since then, including the advancement of GPT, which is information it technically does not know about and had not been trained on. What if ChatGPT-4 knew what we do today? I would assume the 5%-10% probability would increase, perhaps significantly. For evidence, consider the Pause Giant AI Experiments: An Open Letter, that I just wrote about. This call to slow down Ai development has been signed by most of the industry insiders. What do they know that we don’t?

One thing we know is ChatGPT-4 is not the only one to openly make the Singularity prediction. Ray Kurzweil, head of Google’s Ai, and strong proponent of the idea of The Singularity, predicted years ago that it would come by 2045. Kurzweil has written several books on technology and futurism, including “The Age of Spiritual Machines,” “The Singularity Is Near,” and “How to Create a Mind.” He is also the co-founder of Singularity University, a think tank that focuses on exploring the potential of exponential technologies to solve pressing world problems. Anyway, according to another well-known Ai expert, Dr. Alan Thompson, Kurzweil recently accelerated his prediction “to happen possibly in the next few months, not 5 or 10 years” because of the new LLM GPT technologies. See the Reddit Singularity discussion page starting with video interview of Thompson, at 24:35. So, by comparison ChatGPT-4’s prediction of a 5-10% chance in five years is not that outrageous. Maybe it will happen later this year? There is a chance.

What is the Singularity?

I checked ChatGPT-4’s answer to this question and prompted it in several ways. Same answer every time as to odds for emergence in five years. More on this later, but first, an introduction to the Singularity for those who may not be familiar with it.

The Singularity, often referred to as the Technological Singularity, is a hypothetical point in the future at which artificial intelligence (Ai) becomes so advanced that it surpasses human intelligence, leading to rapid, unforeseeable changes in society and technology. The term was popularized by mathematician and computer scientist Vernor Vinge and futurist Ray Kurzweil.

At the Singularity, Ai systems would possess the ability to autonomously learn, improve, and create new Ai systems more intelligent than themselves, resulting in an exponential increase in intelligence. This self-improvement cycle could lead to Ai systems that are vastly more capable and sophisticated than human minds.

The Singularity is often associated with the development of artificial general intelligence (AGI), which is an Ai system that can perform any intellectual task that a human being can do. AGI is distinct from narrow Ai, which is designed for specific tasks and lacks the broad cognitive abilities and adaptability of human intelligence.

The implications of the Singularity are the subject of much speculation and debate. Most people who have thought about it agree that the Singularity would be a decisive turning point in human history. Some view this with awe and trepidation, almost like a religious event that will lead to everlasting life and happiness. Many believe it will bring tremendous breakthroughs in medicine, energy, and space exploration. Others are more cautious, expressing concerns about the ethical, societal, and existential risks associated with super-intelligent Ai systems. Some predict doom and gloom. Some think it is impossible.

Predicting the Singularity Start Date

The general caveat to this question given by all experts is that predicting when the Singularity might occur is highly uncertain, as it depends on the pace of Ai research, breakthroughs in understanding human cognition, and the development of advanced hardware and software systems. Still ChatGPT-4 has, just today, gone out on the limb and responded to my dialogue by predicting a 5%-10% chance in five years, 2028. The quote of its actual answer follows.

Predicting the likelihood of the Singularity occurring by 2028 is a complex and speculative task. While AI advancements continue at a remarkable pace, achieving general intelligence within this time frame remains uncertain and heavily debated among experts. Given the current state of AI research and development, we might cautiously estimate the probability of the Singularity occurring by 2028 to be relatively low, around 5%-10%. However, this estimation is subject to change as new breakthroughs and developments emerge in the field of AI.

ChatGPT-4, prompt and QC by Losey

Chat GPT-4 did so without knowledge of what has happened since September 2021, when it was last fed data. We know what has happened since September 2021, we know the pace of change, even though the ChatGPT models do not. We know that when ChatGPT-3.5 was released in November 2022, it scored in the bottom 10% of the multi-state Bar exam. But just five months later, when 4.0 was released in March 2023, it scored in the top 10%. Let that sink in and remember no new data was provided. There was only improvement in reasoning ability. As lawyers who have all taken this test, we know better than anyone the significance of a jump from the bottom to the top 10% of this challenging test. Yes, it is getting pretty smart, fast. How much longer until its intelligence exceeds our own?

Opportunities and Challenges Presented by the Singularity

The three opportunities listed here, all good, are generally thought to be possible in a time of technological Singularity, a time where Ai intelligence and capacities accelerate at an exponential rate.

  1. Accelerated Technological Progress: The Singularity could lead to rapid advancements in various fields, as super-intelligent AI systems develop new technologies and solve complex problems that were previously beyond human reach.
  2. Economic Growth: With Ai systems handling tasks more efficiently and effectively than humans, productivity and economic growth could increase dramatically, potentially leading to higher standards of living and reduced global inequality.
  3. Scientific Discoveries: The Singularity might enable breakthroughs in areas such as healthcare, environmental sustainability, and space exploration, as Ai systems analyze vast amounts of data, simulate complex phenomena, and generate innovative solutions to pressing challenges.

Conversely, as usual, their is a flip side to opportunities, the generally accepted challenges, some might say threats, presented by the Singularity:

  1. Ethical Concerns: As Ai systems surpass human intelligence, ethical considerations become paramount. Ensuring that Ai systems behave ethically, adhere to human values, and respect individual rights will be crucial.
  2. Job Displacement: The widespread adoption of super-intelligent Ai systems could result in job displacement across various industries, as human workers are replaced by more efficient Ai. This raises concerns about unemployment, workforce retraining, and social safety nets.
  3. Existential Risks: The Singularity poses potential existential risks, as super-intelligent Ai might act in ways that are harmful to humanity, either intentionally or unintentionally. Ensuring Ai safety and robustness is essential to mitigate these risks.

Preparing for the Singularity

Given the potential opportunities and challenges presented by the Singularity, we should take proactive steps in its anticipation. Again, it is generally agreed that these steps should include:

  1. Investing in Ai research: Fostering advancements in Ai research, particularly in the areas of Ai safety, ethics, and alignment with human values, can help society navigate the potential risks and benefits of the Singularity.
  2. Developing adaptable education systems: Ensuring that education systems are adaptable and promote lifelong learning can help individuals acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to thrive in an Ai-driven world.
  3. Encouraging interdisciplinary collaboration: Promoting collaboration between Ai researchers, ethicists, policymakers, and other stakeholders can facilitate the development of robust, responsible Ai systems and policies that address the societal implications of the Singularity.
  4. Fostering public engagement and awareness: Encouraging public dialogue about the Singularity and its potential consequences can help society make informed decisions and shape the trajectory of Ai development. (One of the reasons I’m writing this article.)

We need to be prepared for a future in which Ai plays a vastly more significant role in various aspects of society.

Part Two Will Conclude Soon With Four More Sections: 1. The Likely Impact of the Singularity on Lawyers and the Legal System; 2. What Lawyers and Judges Should Do Now to Prepare for the Singularity; 3. What About Ten Years After? and 4. Conclusion. Hopefully the Singularity will not get here before you read Part Two and I read your comments. I’d hate for any of us to get caught unprepared. (Note – as of yet, ChatGPT-4 and other Ai, all seem incapable of subtle sarcasm. May it always be so!)

Do You Agree With The Petition To Pause ChatGPT Development?

March 29, 2023

Below is the open letter that is putting AI Ethics front and center. That is a very good thing. But at this point, I do not have enough information to endorse and sign this open letter, which is really a Petition.

I am concerned that this action is premature, that ChaGPT-4 is still a child, and needs more development for it to be useful. IMO it is too early to stop LLMs. I could be wrong, but for now prefer to err on the side of innovation. Read it and see what you think.

Pause Giant AI Experiments: An Open Letter

We call on all AI labs to immediately pause for at least 6 months the training of AI systems more powerful than GPT-4.

AI systems with human-competitive intelligence can pose profound risks to society and humanity, as shown by extensive research[1] and acknowledged by top AI labs.[2] As stated in the widely-endorsed Asilomar AI PrinciplesAdvanced AI could represent a profound change in the history of life on Earth, and should be planned for and managed with commensurate care and resources. Unfortunately, this level of planning and management is not happening, even though recent months have seen AI labs locked in an out-of-control race to develop and deploy ever more powerful digital minds that no one – not even their creators – can understand, predict, or reliably control.

Contemporary AI systems are now becoming human-competitive at general tasks,[3] and we must ask ourselves: Should we let machines flood our information channels with propaganda and untruth? Should we automate away all the jobs, including the fulfilling ones? Should we develop nonhuman minds that might eventually outnumber, outsmart, obsolete and replace us? Should we risk loss of control of our civilization? Such decisions must not be delegated to unelected tech leaders.  Powerful AI systems should be developed only once we are confident that their effects will be positive and their risks will be manageable. This confidence must be well justified and increase with the magnitude of a system’s potential effects. OpenAI’s recent statement regarding artificial general intelligence, states that “At some point, it may be important to get independent review before starting to train future systems, and for the most advanced efforts to agree to limit the rate of growth of compute used for creating new models.” We agree. That point is now.

Therefore, we call on all AI labs to immediately pause for at least 6 months the training of AI systems more powerful than GPT-4. This pause should be public and verifiable, and include all key actors. If such a pause cannot be enacted quickly, governments should step in and institute a moratorium.

AI labs and independent experts should use this pause to jointly develop and implement a set of shared safety protocols for advanced AI design and development that are rigorously audited and overseen by independent outside experts. These protocols should ensure that systems adhering to them are safe beyond a reasonable doubt.[4] This does not mean a pause on AI development in general, merely a stepping back from the dangerous race to ever-larger unpredictable black-box models with emergent capabilities.

AI research and development should be refocused on making today’s powerful, state-of-the-art systems more accurate, safe, interpretable, transparent, robust, aligned, trustworthy, and loyal.

In parallel, AI developers must work with policymakers to dramatically accelerate development of robust AI governance systems. These should at a minimum include: new and capable regulatory authorities dedicated to AI; oversight and tracking of highly capable AI systems and large pools of computational capability; provenance and watermarking systems to help distinguish real from synthetic and to track model leaks; a robust auditing and certification ecosystem; liability for AI-caused harm; robust public funding for technical AI safety research; and well-resourced institutions for coping with the dramatic economic and political disruptions (especially to democracy) that AI will cause.

Humanity can enjoy a flourishing future with AI. Having succeeded in creating powerful AI systems, we can now enjoy an “AI summer” in which we reap the rewards, engineer these systems for the clear benefit of all, and give society a chance to adapt. Society has hit pause on other technologies with potentially catastrophic effects on society.[5]  We can do so here. Let’s enjoy a long AI summer, not rush unprepared into a fall.


EDITORS NOTES: Not a complete list. (These folks sure do love their titles and awards. Color me impressed.)

Yoshua Bengio, Founder and Scientific Director at Mila, Turing Prize winner and professor at University of Montreal

Stuart Russell, Berkeley, Professor of Computer Science, director of the Center for Intelligent Systems, and co-author of the standard textbook “Artificial Intelligence: a Modern Approach”

Elon Musk, CEO of SpaceX, Tesla & Twitter

Steve Wozniak, Co-founder, Apple

Yuval Noah Harari, Author and Professor, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Andrew Yang, Forward Party, Co-Chair, Presidential Candidate 2020, NYT Bestselling Author, Presidential Ambassador of Global Entrepreneurship

Connor Leahy, CEO, Conjecture

Jaan Tallinn, Co-Founder of Skype, Centre for the Study of Existential Risk, Future of Life Institute

Evan Sharp, Co-Founder, Pinterest

Chris Larsen, Co-Founder, Ripple

Emad Mostaque, CEO, Stability AI

Valerie Pisano, President & CEO, MILA

John J Hopfield, Princeton University, Professor Emeritus, inventor of associative neural networks

Rachel Bronson, President, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Max Tegmark, MIT Center for Artificial Intelligence & Fundamental Interactions, Professor of Physics, president of Future of Life Institute

Anthony Aguirre, University of California, Santa Cruz, Executive Director of Future of Life Institute, Professor of Physics

Victoria Krakovna, DeepMind, Research Scientist, co-founder of Future of Life Institute

Emilia Javorsky, Physician-Scientist & Director, Future of Life Institute

Sean O’Heigeartaigh, Executive Director, Cambridge Centre for the Study of Existential Risk

Tristan Harris, Executive Director, Center for Humane Technology

Marc Rotenberg, Center for AI and Digital Policy, President

Nico Miailhe, The Future Society (TFS), Founder and PresidentZachary Kenton, DeepMind, Senior Research Scientist

Ramana Kumar, DeepMind, Research Scientist

Gary Marcus, New York University, AI researcher, Professor Emeritus

Steve Omohundro, Beneficial AI Research, CEO

Danielle Allen, Harvard University, Professor and Director, Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Ethics

Luis Moniz Pereira, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal, Professor Emeritus, Doctor Honoris Causa T.U. Dresden, Fellow of EurAI, Fellow AAIA

Carles Sierra, Director Artificial Intelligence Research Institute, IIIA-CSIC; President of the European Association of AI, EurAI., Research Professor of the CSIC, EurAI Fellow

Ramon Lopez De Mantaras, Artificial Intelligence Research Institute, Research Professor, Robert S. Engelmore Memorial Award of the AAAI, EurAI Fellow, National Research Prize in Mathematics of the Spanish Government

Mark Nitzberg, Center for Human-Compatible AI, UC Berkeley, Executive Directer

Gianluca Bontempi, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Full Professor in Machine Learning, Cohead of the ULB Machine Learning Group

Daniel Schwarz, Metaculus, CTO, Metaculus

Nicholas Saparoff, Software Architect, Founder of ByteSphere Technologies and Phenome.AI

Alessandro Perilli, Synthetic Work, AI Researcher

Matt Mahoney, Hutter Prize Committee, Retired data scientist, Developed PAQ and ZPAQ, large text benchmark to evaluate language models using compression

Régis Sabbadin, Inrae-Université de Toulouse, France, Research Director in AI

Peter Stone, The University of Texas at Austin, Associate Chair of Computer Science, Director of Robotics, Chair of the 100 Year Study on AI, Professor of Computer Science, IJCAI Computer and Thought Award; Fellow of AAAI, ACM, IEEE, and AAAS.

Alessandro Saffiotti, Orebro University, Sweden, Professor, Fellow of the European Association for Artificial Intelligence

Louis Rosenberg, Unanimous AI, CEO & Chief Scientist

Jason Tamara Widjaja, Director of Artificial Intelligence, Certified AI Ethics & Governance (Expert)

Niki Iliadis, The Future Society, Director on AI and the Rule of Law

Dr. Jeroen Franse, ABN Amro Bank, Advisor MLOps and ML governance

Colin De La Higuera, Nantes Université. France, Unesco Chair on Open Educational Resoiurces and Artificial Intelligence

Vincent Conitzer, Carnegie Mellon University and University of Oxford, Professor of Computer Science, Director of Foundations of Cooperative AI Lab, Head of Technical AI Engagement at the Institute for Ethics in AI, Presidential Early Career Award in Science and Engineering, Computers and Thought Award, Social Choice and Welfare Prize, Guggenheim Fellow, Sloan Fellow, ACM Fellow, AAAI Fellow, ACM/SIGAI Autonomous Agents Research Award

Elionai Moura Cordeiro, UFRN | BioME |, CEO – AI Researcher, RSG Brazil Member | BioME fellow researcher

Peter Warren, Director, Author ‘AI on Trial’ a discussion on the need for AI regulation published by Bloomsbury

Takafumi Matsumaru, Graduate School of Information, Production and Systems, Waseda University, Japan, Professor (Robotics and Mechatronics), IEEE senior member

Jaromír Janisch, CTU in Prague, PhD. student in AI

Emma Bluemke, Centre for the Governance of AI, PhD Engineering, University of Oxford

Mario Gibney, AI Governance & Safety Canada, Director of Partnerships

Louise Doherty, Executive Coach to AI ethics/safety and for-good leaders

Evan R. Murphy, AI Safety Researcher, Independent; Board Member, AIGS

CanadaJulien Billot, Scale AI, CEO

Jeff Orkin, Central Casting AI, CEO, PhD from MIT. Awards for best AI in the video game industry for my work on FEAR and No One Lives Forever 2Anish Upadhayay, Co-founder of the AI Safety Initiative at Georgia Tech

Subhabrata Majumdar, AI Risk and Vulnerability Alliance, Founder and PresidentYuxi Li,, Founder

Francesc Giralt, University Rovira i Virgili, Professor Emeritus, Distinguished with the Narcís Monturiol Medal, Catalonia

Joseph Sifakis, Verimag, Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS Research Director Emeritus, Turing Award 2007

Wyatt Tessari L’Allié, AIGS Canada, Founder & Executive DirectorJ

ohn Wettlaufer, Yale University & Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, Professor, Nobel Committee for Physics; Guggenheim Fellow; Fellow, American Geophysical Union; Fellow, American Physical Society

Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, MIT, Professor of Physics, Wolf Prize in Physics, US National Academy of Sciences

Gillian Hadfield, University of Toronto, Schwartz Reisman Institute for Technology and Society, Professor and Director

Craig Peters, Getty Images, CEO

Christof Koch, MindScope Program, Allen Institute, Seattle, Chief Scientist

Mateo Valero Cortes, Director of the Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Fellow of Royal Spanish Academy of Engineering

Richard Guy Compton, Oxford University, Professor of Chemistry

Robert Brandenberger, McGill University, Professor of Physics

Alfonso Ngan, Hong Kong University, Chair in Materials Science and Engineering

Mark Brakel, Director of Policy, Future of Life Institute

J.M.Don MacElroy, University College Dublin, Emeritus Chair of Chemical Engineering

Lawrence M. Krauss, President, The Origins Project Foundation

Michael Wellman, University of Michigan, Professor and Chair of Computer Science & Engineering

Berndt Mueller, Duke University, J.B. Duke Professor of Physics

Alan Mackworth, University of British Columbia, Professor Emeritus of Computer Science

Rolf Harald Baayen, University of Tuebingen, ProfessorGrady Booch, ACM Fellow, IEEE Fellow, IEEE Computing Pioneer, IBM FellowTor Nordam, NTNU, Adjunct associate professor of physics,

Joshua David Greene, Harvard University, Professor,

Arturo Giraldez, University of the Pacific, Professor

Scott Niekum, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Associate Professor

Lars Kotthoff, University of Wyoming, Assistant Professor, Senior Member, AAAI and ACM

Steve Petersen, Niagara University, Associate Professor of Philosophy

Yves Deville, UCLouvain, Professor of Computer Science

Christoph Weniger, University of Amsterdam, Associate Professor for Theoretical Physics,

Luc Steels, University of Brussels (VUB) Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, emeritus professor and founding director, EURAI Distinguished Service Award, Chair for Natural Science of the Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium

Roman Yampolskiy, Professor

Alyssa M Vance, Blue Rose Research, Senior Data Scientist

Jonathan Moreno, University of Pennsylvania, David and Lyn Silfen University Professor, Member, National Academy of Medicine

Andrew Barto, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Professor emeritus, Fellow AAAS, Fellow IEEE

Peter B. Reiner, University of British Columbia, Professor of Neuroethics

Jorel, University of Caen, Assitant professor,

Paul Rosenbloom, University of Southern California, Professor Emeritus of Computer Science, Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, and the Cognitive Science Society

Michael Gillings, Macquarie University, Professor of Molecular Evolution,

Grigorios Tsoumakas, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Associate Professor

Benjamin Kuipers, University of Michigan, Professor of Computer Science, Fellow, AAAI, IEEE, AAAS

Chi-yuen Wang, UC Berkeley, Professor Emeritus,

Johann Rohwer, Stellenbosch University, Professor of Systems Biology

Geoffrey Odlum, Odlum Global Strategies , President , Retired U.S. Diplomat

Dana S. Nau, University of Maryland, Professor, Computer Science Dept and Institute for Systems Research, AAAI Fellow, ACM Fellow, AAAS Fellow

Andrew Francis, Western Sydney University, Professor of Mathematics

Vassilis P. Plagianakos, University of Thessaly, Greece, Professor of Computational Intelligence, Dean of the School of Science, University of Thessaly, Greece

Stefan Sint, Trinity College Dublin, Associate Professor, School of Mathematics

Hector Geffner, RWTH Aachen University, Alexander von Humboldt Professor, Fellow AAAI, EurAI

B. Thomas Soifer, California Institute of Technology, Harold Brown Professor of Physics, Emeritus, NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal, NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal

Marcus Frei, NEXT. robotics GmbH & Co. KG, CEO, Member European DIGITAL SME Alliance FG AI, Advisory Board

Brendan McCane, University of Otago, Professor

Kang G. Shin, University of Michigan, Professor, Fellow of IEEE and ACM, winner of the Hoam Engineering Prize

Miguel Gregorkiewitz, University Siena, Italy, Professor

Václav Nevrlý, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Safety Engineering, Assistant Professor

Alan Frank Thomas Winfield, Bristol Robotics Laboratory, UWE Bristol, UK, Professor of Robot Ethics

LuIs Caires, NOVA University Lisbon, Professor of Computer Science and Head of NOVA Laboratory for Computer Science and Informatics

Vincent Corruble, Sorbonne University, Associate Professor of Computer Science

Sunyoung Yang, The University of Arizona, Assistant Professor

The Anh han, Teesside University , Professor of Computer Science, Lead of Centre for Digital Innovation

Yngve Sundblad, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Professor emeritus

Marco Dorigo, Université Libre de Bruxelles, AI lab Research Director, AAAI Fellow; EurAI Fellow; IEEE Fellow; IEEE Frank Rosenblatt Award; Marie Curie Excellence Award

Domenico Talia, University of Calabria, Professor

Courtney M. Peterson, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Associate Professor

Divya Siddarth, Collective Intelligence Project, Co-director

Timothy John O’Donnell, McGill University/Mila, Professor, Canada CIFAR AI Chair

Hans Martin Seip, University of Oslo, Professor Emeritus, Member of Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and of The Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters

Kim Mens, Professor of Computer Science, UCLouvain

Thomas Wallis, Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany, Professor

Damian Lyons, Fordham University, Professor, SM IEEE

Olle Häggström, Chalmers University of Technology, Professor of mathematical statistics, Member, Royal Swedish Academy of Science

Robert Kowalski, Department of Computing, Imperial College London, Professor Emeritus and Distinguished Research Fellow, IJCAI Award for Research Excellence

Jakob Foerster, University of Oxford, Associate Professor, Awarded ERC Starter Grant in 2023

Michael Symonds, The University of Nottingam, Emeritus Professor

Andrew Robinson, The University of Melbourne, Professor

Tony J. Prescott, University of Sheffield, Professor of Cognitive Robotics

Robert Brooks, UNSW Sydney, Scientia Professor

Yoshihiko Nakamura, University of Tokyo, Senior Researcher / Professor Emeritus

Zbigniew H. Stachurski, Australian National University, A/Prof. – retired

David Scott Krueger, University of Cambridge, Assistant Professor

Raul Monroy, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Professor

Peter Vamplew, Federation University Australia, Professor of Information Technology

Jean-Claude Latombe, Computer Science Department, Stanford University, Professor, Emeritus

Frank van den Bosch, Yale University, Professor of Theoretical Astrophysics

Richard Dazeley, Deakin University, Professor of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

M V N Murthy, Former Professor at The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai, India, None, Fellow, Indian Academy of Sciences

Rada Mihalcea, University of Michigan, Professor of Computer Science, Director Michigan AI Lab, PECASE recipient, AAAI Fellow, ACM Fellow

Qiaobing Xu, Tufts University, Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Fellow of AIMBE

Raymund Sison, De La Salle University, Professor and University Fellow, Metrobank Foundation Outstanding Teacher and NAST Outstanding Young Scientist

Jonathan Cefalu, Preamble, Inc., Chairman, Inventor of Prompt Injection; Forbes 30 Under 30 for inventing Snapchat Spectacles AR glasses

George Helou, California Institute of Technology, Executive Director of IPAC at Caltech, Fellow, American Astronomical Society; NASA Distringuished Public Service Medal; Gruber Cosmology Prize (2018, shared)

JACOB TSIMERMAN, University of Toronto, Professor of Mathematics, New horizons 2021 prize winner

Hema A Murthy, Indian Institute of Technology Madras India, Professor, Fellow,Indian National Academy of Engineering; Fellow, Internattional Speech Communication Association

Huw Price, University of Cambridge, Emeritus Bertrand Russell Professor of Philosophy, FBA, FAHA

Ulises Cortés, Univeristat Politècnica de Catalunya, Professor, Fellow Sociedad Mexicana de Inteligencia Artificial. Mexican of the year 2018

Robert Babuska, Delft University of Technology, Professor

Alexander Schütz, University of Marburg, Professor of Experimental Psychology

Joan Manuel del Pozo Alvarez, Spain, Prof. of Philisiphy, Exminister of Education and Universities

Albert Sabater, University of Girona, Director of the Catalan Observatory for Ethis in Artificial Intelligence

Gert Jervan, Tallinn University of Technology, Professor of Dependable Computer Systems, Dean of School of Information Technologies

Aza Raskin, Center for Humane Technology / Earth Species Project, Cofounder, National Geographic Explorer, WEF Global AI Council

Gregory Provan, University College Cork, Professor, Rhodes Scholar

Jordi Miralda-Escude, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, ICREA, ICREA research professor

Frits Vaandrager, Radboud University, Head of the Department of Software Science

Nicholas Taylor, Heriot-Watt University, Professor of Computer Science, Chartered Engineer, Chartered IT Professional, Chartered Mathematician, Fellow British Computer Society, Fellow Higher Education Academy, Member Institute of Mathematics and its Applications

Eduard Savador-Solé, University of Barcelona, Full Proessor

Tom Lenaerts, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Professor

Gerhard Lakemeyer, RWTH Aachen University, Professor, Fellow, European Association for Artificial Intelligence

Simeon Campos, SaferAI, Founder

Stuart S. Blume, Unversity of Amsterdam, Emeritus Professor of Science & Technology Studies

Manel Sanromà, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona. Catalonia, Professor of Applied Mathematics. Founder of CIVICAi, Trustee Emeritus, Internet Society

Paolo Zuccon, Trento University, Italy, Associate Professor

Georgios Gounalakis, Philipps-University Marburg, Professor of Law

João Emilio Almeida, LIACC / CITECA / ISTEC Porto, Professor / Researcher, Senior and Specialist member of Portuguese Engineers Order

Jan Pieter van der Schaar, Institute of Physics, University of Amsterdam, Associate Professor

Oren Schuldiner, Weizmann Institute of Science, Professor

Michel Schellekens, University College Cork, Professor, Fulbright Award

Martin Welk, UMIT TIROL – Private University for Health Sciences and Health Technology, Hall in Tirol, Austria, Professor

Nayat Sanchez-Pi, Inria Chile, CEO, CEO Inria Chile

Simon Friederich, University of Groningen, Associate Professor of Philosophy of Science

John S. Edwards, Aston University, Birmingham, UK, Professor of Knowledge Management

Joachim Weickert, Saarland University, Germany, Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science

Michael Osborne, University of Oxford, Professor of Machine Learning

Teresa Riera Madurell, UIB/BSC, Professor, Pormer MEP

Cristina Urdiales, University of Malaga, Professor Robotics, Phd in Robotics, PhD in AI

Yuri Gurevich, University of Michigan, Professor, Fellow, AAAS, and ACM

Raja Chatila, Sorbonne University, Paris, Professor Emeritus AI, Robotics and Technology Ethics, Fellow, IEEE

Daniel Langkilde, Kognic, CEO, Founder & CEO, Kognic

Goetz Neuneck, Co-chairman Federation of German Scientists, Professor Emeritus of Physics, University of Hamburg

Gregory Randall, Universidad de la República, Uruguay, Profesor

Christopher F. Mckee, University of California at Berkeley, Professor of Physics and of Astronomy, Emeritus Member, National Academy of Sciences and American Academy of Arts and Sciences; Fellow, American Physical Society, and American Astronomical Society

Gaia Dempsey, Metaculus, CEO, Schmidt Futures Innovation Fellow

Yannis Tsividis, Columbia University, Edwin Armstrong Professor of Electrical Engineering, Member, US National Academy of Engineering

Pattie Maes, MIT, Professor, Global leader for tomorrow, World Economic Forum

Joao Leite, NOVA University Lisbon, Professor of Computer Science, Head of the Department of Computer Science

Jon Solomon, Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3, Professor

Anne Jeannin-Girardon, University of Strasbourg, Associate Professor of Computer Science

Joe Redston, Raise, Founder

Brian Mingus,, Chief Executive Officer, Solomonoff Student Prize

Pierre Boulet, University of Lille, Professeur of Computer Science, VP for digital infrastructures of the University of Lille

Daniel Bauer, Columbia University, Lecturer in Natural Language Processing

Jack Stilgoe, University College London, Professor of Science and Technology Policy

Jens Niemeyer, University of Goettingen, Professor of Physics

Joshua Reeves, Oregon State University, Associate Professor

Manuel Sanchez Miranda, Geneva Graduate Institute, Postdoctoral Fellow

Steve Jones, University of Illinois Chicago, UIC Distinguished Professor of Communication, Fellow, International Communication Association

Dae-Shik Kim, KAIST, Professor of Electrical Engineering

Alejandro Bernardin, Fundacion Ciencia & Vida, Postdoctoral Researcher,

Norman K Swazo, North South University, Professor of Philosophy; Director, Office of Research

Engelbert Mephu Nguifo, LIMOS – University Clermont Auvergne – CNRS, Professor

Rufo Guerreschi, Trustless Computing Association, Executive Director, Founder of the Trustless Computing Association

Joseph S. Webster, Professor of Mathematics, Ph.D. Curriculum & Instruction (Mathematics Education)

Marcel Lüthi, University of Basel, Lecturer in Computer Science

Soumya Ray, Case Western Reserve University, Associate Professor

Maja Van Der Velden, University of Oslo, Professor

Juan Pablo Bermúdez, Imperial College London, Research Associate, PhD in Philosophy / AI Ethics

Stephen Majercik, Bowdoin College, Associate Professor of Computer Science

Joaquin Arango, Complutense Univerisity Madrid, Professor

George Verghese, MIT, Warren Professor of Electrical and Biomedical Engineering

Håvard Tveit Ihle, University of Oslo, Postdoc in Cosmology

Vitezslav Kala, Charles University, Associate Professor of Mathematics

Gabriele Ferretti, Chalmers University of Technology, Professor of Theoretical Physics

Michael Mccabe, CEO

Dr. Alexandra Reed Lajoux, Capital Expert Services, LLC, Founding Principal, Board of Fellows, Caux Round Table for Moral Capitalism; CKO Emeritus, NACD

Barry Bentley, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Deputy Director, EUREKA Robotics Centre

Jeroen De Dauw, CEO

Geoff Fitch, Pacific Integral, Co-Founder

Pascal Thomet, Research consultant / Cofounder of Activisu

Einar H. Gudmundsson, Univerity of Iceland, Professor Emeritus

Fredrik Allenmark, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Postdoctoral Researcher

Richard J Self, University of Derby, Senior Lecturer in Governance of Advanced and Emerging Technologies

Andrew Philippides, University of Sussex, Professor of Biorobotics

Cédric Pradalier, Georgiatech Europe, Associate professor

Benjamin Rosman, University of the Witswatersrand, Professor of Computer Science

Chad Goldthwaite, American Inventions, CEO, Founder, Passionate, Perpetual Autodidact

Hans Hyttel, Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen, Associate Professor

Peter Jaffé, Princeton University, Willkiam L. Knapp, Professo of Civil Engineering, Fellow, American Geophysical Union

Juan-Antonio Fernández-Madrigal, University of Málaga (Spain), Professor of Robotics, Real-Time Systems and Computer Control; researcher in Cognitive Robotics.

Ivan Rizzo Guilherme, UNESP, Associate Professor

Dragan Janković, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Psychology, Assistant Professor

Jeroen Van Den Hoven, Delft University of Technology, Professor of Ethics and Technology, Founding Editor in Chief Ethics and Information Technology (Springer Nature)

Justin Good, The Sanctuary, Central CT State University, Lecturer in Ethics

Ernesto Jorge Fernandes Costa, University of Coimbra, Full Professor

Libero Maesano, Simple Engineering, CEO

Zara Yaqoob, Founder

Arthur Breitman, Co-founder of Tezos

Florian Fiebig, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Postdoctoral Researcher

Kamen Brestnichki, INSAIT, Researcher, MSc Computational Statistics and Machine Learning at UCL

Atılım Güneş Baydin, University of Oxford, Lecturer in Machine Learning

Wolfgang Banzhaf, Michigan State University, USA, John R. Koza Chair in Genetic Programming, Endowed Chair Professor

Chuck Anderson, Colorado State University, Professor

John E Pellizzom, Integrated ProAction Corp, President

Yves Moreau, University of Leuven, Full professor, Fellow International Society of Computational Biology

Ben Shneiderman, University of Maryland, Professor emeritus, Member U.S. National Academy of Engineering

Christian Walter Peter Omlin, University of Agder, Professor

Stefan Woltran, TU Wien, University Professor, EurAI Fellow

Phil D Hall, Founder, FRSA

Luca Simoncini, University of Pisa, Professor (Retired)

Sarwech Shar, Founder/Developer

Marek Oziewicz, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Professor, Director, Center for Climate Literacy

Tias Guns, KU Leuven, Prof. in AI, ERC Consolidator grantee

Enyo Markovski, CEO

Barry Devlin, 9sight Consulting, Founder

Yves Moreau, University of Leuven, Full professor, Fellow International Society of Computational Biology

Ben Shneiderman, University of Maryland, Professor emeritus, Member U.S. National Academy of Engineering

Christian Walter Peter Omlin, University of Agder, Professor

Stefan Woltran, TU Wien, University Professor, EurAI Fellow

Ernest Davis, New York University, Professor of Computer Science

Rick Vitale, University of Connecticut, Professor Emeritus

Hoshin Gupta, University of Arizona, Regents Professor, Fellow of American Geophysical Union

Alípio Mário Guedes Jorge, University of Porto, Professor

Faisal Riaz, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Professor of Computing, ICT P@SHA Award 2022

James Crutchfield, University of California, Davis, Distinguished Professor of Physics, Distinguished Professor of Physics

Ido Hartogsohn, Bar Ilan University, Professor for Science, Technology, and Society

Pierre Leprince, Natagora, President

Justin Scholz, CEO/Cofounder of Phelas

Jill Nephew, Inqwire, PBC and AI researcher since 1999, CEO/Founder, NSF Fellow

David Burman, Brahe Foundation, Director

Przemyslaw Nowak, Lodz University of Technology, Senior Lecturer

Ian Panchevre,, Founder, Alumnus, Intuit Futures; MBA, Stanford GSB; Political Theory, Yale

Christopher Markou, Faculty of Law, University of Cambridge, Lecturer, Leverhulme Early Career Fellow

Prasad Tadepalli, Oregon State University, Professor of Computer Science

Brian Atkins, Machine Intelligence Research Institute, Co-Founder

Victoria Ustimenko, PRETO BUSINESS PR Agency, CEO/Founder, Global Head of Markets at TAFFD

Duncan G. Steel, University of Michigan, Professor, EECS and Physics, Fellow, APS, OSA, IEEE

Alexandre Rispal, CEO AR Consulting / Author / Speaker, Distinguished Professor QAHE / AUBSS

David Lowe, University of British Columbia, Professor Emeritus of Computer Science

Vít Janiš, Mendel University in Brno, Assistant professor

Tadek Twardowski, CEO SpatioTempoWeb / Fullstack dev,

Arvind Tiwary, SangEnnovate, Founder

Michael Pollock, Daraja (Third Culture Care), Educator/Consultant/Coach and Founding Director, Author, Third Culture Kids: Growing Up Among Worlds 3rd ed ; Masters in Education, Loyola University; Founding Head of School, Cambridge School, Baltimore; Founder Odyssey ISC student development, Tianjin China; Founder Daraja

Santiago González Izard, CEO of ARSOFT, PhD in Computer Engineering, CEO and CTO of ARSOFT

Alex Pagnoni, CTO Mastermind, Founder

Simon Mueller, The Future Society (TFS), Co-Founder, The Future Society, Harvard Kennedy School (MPA ’15)

Joao Fabiano, Department of Philosophy, University of Sao Paulo, Postdoctoral Fellow

James Koppel, Ph. D., Mirdin, Founder, Ph. D. in Computer Science at MIT with research profiled in New York Times. Thiel Fellow.

Deger Turan, AI Objectives Institute, President

Ken D Olum, Tufts University, Research professor

Gordon N. Fleming, Penn State University, Prof. Emeritus of Physics (retired)

Catherine Régis, University of Montreal, Professor of law, Canada Research Chair

Lorena Etcheverry, Instituto de Computación, Universidad de la República, Uruguay, Associate Professor

Duncan G. Steel, University of Michigan, Professor, EECS and Physics, Fellow, APS, OSA, IEEE

Dirk Lindebaum, Grenoble Ecole de Management, Professor in Management

J. Craig Wheeler, The University of Texas at Austin, Samuel T. and Fern Yanagisawa Regents Professor of Astronomy, Emeritus, Inaugural Fellow of the American Astronomical Society, Fellow of the American Physical Society, President of the American Astronomical Society 2006-2008, author of “Wild Ride Ahead: The Technological Future of Humanity”, in preparation.

Pierre-Etienne Jacques, Université de Sherbrooke, Professor

Ramon F. Brena, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Emeritus professor, Member, Academia Mexicana de Ciencias

Prabhu Guptara, Salt Desert Media Group Ltd, U. K., Publisher, Distinguished Professor of Global Business, Management and Public Policy (retired), William Carey University, India

Robert Schuham, RJ Schuham Resiliency, Founder/CEO

Jackie Rotman, Center for Intimacy Justice, Founder & CEO

Ricardo Baeza-Yates, Northeastern University, Director of Research, EAI, ACM & IEEE Fellow, National Awards in Chile and Spain

Sh Kwee, MD, MSc, ex-researcher

Hendrik Scheider, private sector, VP Professional Services, Co-creator of an anonymous, AI-powered loyalty system for retail

Frank Hutter, University of Freiburg, Professor of Computer Science, Fellow of EurAI and ELLIS; 3x ERC Grant holder

Mattias Marklund, University of Gothenburg, Professor of Theoretical Physics

Ramon Carbó-Dorca Carré, University of Girona, Emeritus Professor, Naecís Monturiol Medal of the Generalitat de Catalunya

Djamila Amimer, Mind Senses Global ltd, CEO & Founder, Phd

Nicholas Vincent, Co-founder, Responsible AI Licenses; Postdoc, UC Davis + University of Washington; Research fellow, Metagov, Researcher, Machine Learning and Human-computer Interaction

Matthias Samwald, Institute of Artificial Intelligence, Medical University of Vienna, Associate Professor

Steven Pearce, Simon Fraser University, Lecturer

James W. Phillips, UCL, Former Special Adviser to the U.K. Prime Minister for Science and Technology

Alan Smithson, Co-Founder, Creator of creator tools, and considered by some to be an expert in XR and Metaverse.

George Godula, Web2Asia, Chairman, Startup investor, previous FLI donor

Henry Elkus, Founder & CEO: Helena

Logan Sullivan, Causative Labs, CEO

Nate Soares, MIRI, Executive Director

Paul Luton, Labour Party member, Retired, None

Kari Saarenvirta, Daisy Intelligence Corporation, Founder, Chief Scientist and CEO, Inventor with 4 patents and in Fastest Growing Companies in Canada for last 3 years.

Mike Fleetham, Thinking Classroom, CEO

Huub Heijnen, Venture Partner at Lionheart Ventures, Co-Founder & CTO of Causative Labs

Roberto D Merlin, University of Michigan, Professor of Physics, APS and Optica Fellow, Guggenhein Fellow, Simons Fellow. Isakson Prize, American Physical Society, Lippincott Award, Optical Society

Sen. Timothy Wirth, Retired Senator; Board Member, American Academy of Science; PhD Stanford

Michael Mcguffin, ETS, Montreal, Full Professor

Brian Harvey, University of California, Berkeley, Computer Science Division, Teaching Professor Emeritus

Patrick Girard, University of Auckland, Philosopher, Senior lecturer

Benjamin Haldeman, LifeShip, CEO

Markus Krötzsch, TU Dresden, Professor, Director of the DAAD Zuse School of Excellence in AI “SECAI”

Silja Voeneky, University of Freiburg, Germany, Professor International Law and Ethics of Law, co-ed The Cambridge Handbook of Responsible AI, Fellow Human Rights Program, Harvard Law School 2015/16

Stavros Tripakis, Northeastern University, Associate Professor, Computer Science

Emma Ruttkamp-Bloem, University of Pretoria and South African Centre for AI Research, Professor and AI Ethics Lead, Chair of ad hoc expert group that drafted the UNESCO Recommendation on the Ethics of AI

Martin Cederwall, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, Professor in theoretical physics

Luc De Raedt, KU Leuven, Professor & Director of Institute for AI, Wallenberg Guest Professor Örebro University, AAAI and EurAI Fellow

Josif Grabocka, University of Freiburg, Professor of Representation Learning (W1)

Elizabeth Black, King’s College London, Reader in Artificial Intelligence, Director of the UKRI Centre for Doctoral Training in Safe and Trusted AI

Rikard Enberg, Uppsala University, Associate Professor of Physics

Petr Baudis, Rossum, CTO/Cofounder

John Mack, Life Calling, Founder

Fabrice Popineau, CentraleSupélec/Université Paris-Saclay, Professor

Arthur Schloss, Venture Capital, CEO, MIT Fellow

Gaétan Marceau Caron, Mila – Quebec AI Institute, Director, Applied Research Team

Kenneth Holstein, Carnegie Mellon University, Assistant Professor

Thomas Weibull, Chalmers University of Technology, Senior Lecturer in Mathematics, retired

Sauvik Das, Carnegie Mellon University, Human-Computer Interaction Institute, Assistant Professor

Erik Waltersson, Europaskolan Strängnäs, Lecturer, PhD in Physics, Ingvar Lindqvist Price in Physics Teaching

Jorge Vallejo, Civil, Control Engineer, AMFEI recognition for Carrer generation excelence.

Ben Provan, OpenDoor Coliving, CEO

Peter Asaro, The New School, Associate Professor and Director of Media Studies

Kerem Alper, Neol, Cofounder / CEO

Helena Matute, Deusto University, Spain, Professor of Psychology

James Maclaurin, University of Otago, Professor of Philosophy, Co-director Centre for AI and Public Policy

Benjamin Prud’Homme, Mila – Quebec Artificial Intelligence Institute, Executive Director, AI for Humanity

Jose H. Orallo, Technical University of Valencia, Leverhulme Centre for the Future of Intelligence, Centre for the Study of Existential Risk, Professor, EurAI Fellow

Michael Lai, Tinycare, Founder / CEO,

Thomas Laudal, University of Stavanger Business School, Associate Professor

Peter Christen, Australian National University, Professor

Pascal Lavallee, Pascal Lavallee / IT Consultant

Debra A. Fischer, Yale University, Eugene Higgins Professor of Astronomy, Fellow: National Academy of Science, American Academy of Arts and Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Astronomical Society

Robert P.W. Duin, Delft University of Technology, retired professor

Martin Rauchbauer, Tech Diplomacy Network, Founder, Former Austrian Tech Ambassador

Seth Lazar, Machine Intelligence and Normative Theory Lab, Australian National University, Professor of Philosophy, 2023 Tanner Lecturer on AI and Human Values (Stanford), Australian Research Council Future Fellow.

Lara Jeremko, Beyond Ventures, Founder & CEO

Michael Norcia, Pyka, CEO

Alistair Knott, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, Professor in Artificial Intelligence, Member of Global Partnership on AI’s ‘Responsible AI’ working group; Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism’s ‘Transparency’ working group; co-founder of New Zealand’ Centre for AI and Public Policy

Cristian S. Calude, University of Auckland, Chair Professor, Member Academia Europaea

Daniel Suarez, Author, New York Times bestselling author

Alexios Balatsoukas-Stimming, Eindhoven University of Technology, Assistant Professor

Jocelyn Maclure, McGill University, Professor of Philosophy, Jarislowsky Chair in Human Nature and Technology

Jon Zieger, Responsible Innovation Labs, Co-Founder and Executive Director

Kevin Baragona, DeepAI, CEO

Michael King, Bioethics Centre, University of Otago, Head of Department, Senior Lecturer

Denyson Messias, Incognia, Co-Founder

Yaxiong Zhao, Tricorder Observability, CEO, PhD

Franz Giuseppe F. Cortez, University of Santo Tomas (Manila, Philippines), Professor, professor of Philosophy, University of Santo Tomas, member of the National Research Council of the Philippines

Terrence Mernagh, The Australian National University, Honarary Associate Professor

Konrad Seifert, Simon Institute for Longterm Governance, COO

Krishna Gade, Fiddler AI, Founder, CEO, Developed explainable AI at Facebook

Jon Kabat-Zinn, UMass Medical School, Professor of Medicine emeritus

Hao Su, UC San Diego, Assistant Professor

Padhraic Smyth, University of California, Irvine, Professor, Fellow, AAAI; Fellow, ACM; Fellow AAAS

Haichen Shen, Scroll, Co-founder

Priyamvada Natarajan, Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Joseph S. and Sophia S. Fruton Professor of Astronomy & Chair, Fellow, American Physical Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science

Michael Andregg, Fathom Radiant, Founder

Gordon Kane, University of Michigan, Distinguished University Professor of Physics, Emeritus, Fellow, American Physical Society; Awarded Lilienfeld Prize of American Physical Society; Co-awarded Sukurai Prize of American Physical Society; Fellow of American Association of Science; Fellow of British Physical Society

Mark Daley, The University of Western Ontario, Chief Digital Information Officer & Professor

Noam Shazeer, Founder of, CEO, Major contributor to Google’s LaMDA

Matthew Xiao Wang, Me plus robot, Founder an ceo, None

Paolo A. Bolaños, Department of Philosophy, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines, Professor of Philosophy

Yang Gao, ZD Energy, Co-founder

Jordan Harrison Klein, Allen Matkins LLP, Attorney

Zachary Glassman, Founder/Advisor

Nick Harney, Western University, Dean

Tomas Henrique Bode Maul, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Associate Professor

Hengjin Cai, Wuhan University, Professor

Sriraam Natarajan, University of Texas at Dallas, Professor

Teresa Phillips, CEO & Co-Founder, Spherex

Grant Stenger, CEO

Junhong Chen, Neoworld.Cloud, CEO

Philip Larrey, Humanity 2.0 Foundation, Chairman

Kyle Ruddick, One Day on Earth, Helo, Kinetic Magic, Director/Founder, World Record – Most Global FIlm Production

Kimberlee Weatherall, The University of Sydney, Professor of Law; Chief Investigator, ARC Centre of Excellence on Automated Decision-Making and Society

George Dyson, Unafilliated, Author of “Darwin Among the Machines” (1997), “Turing’s Cathedral” (2012), “Analogia: The Emergence of Technology beyond Programmable Control” (2020).

Deniz Aydın, Washington University in St. Louis, Professor

Paul Vos, East Carolina University, Professor

Joachim Diederich, University of Queensland, Honorary Professor

Etc., etc.

Ten Ways LLM Models Such As ChatGPT Can Be Used To Assist Lawyers

March 25, 2023

By Ralph Losey with substantial assistance from ChatGPT-4. Images by Losey and Midjourney Bot.


Keep your Bots on a short leash for now

Dear Bar colleagues and fellow tech enthusiasts, this article explores the top-ten most obvious ways that Large Language Models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT-4 can revolutionize the practice of law. Additional unexpected ways are certain to reveal themselves later down the road. Prepare to embark on an journey into the emerging world of Ai enhanced legal practice.

The assistance of carefully prompted and quality controlled ChatGPT-4 software can, if used correctly, dramatically improve the legal profession. But use caution and be wary, especially in these early days. Keep your new Ai helpers on a short leash. They can make some mistakes, both big and small. As always with new tech, beware of exaggerated claims and vendor fluff.

When you start to use the new products headed our way, be very careful with quality control. Spend the time to master GPT prompting, or hire an expert to do it for you. If used properly the rewards of LLM models will be great. If not used, you may find your career at risk. The times of fast changes are upon us.

Here are the ten most obvious ways the Bots now think they can be of service to the legal profession.

  1. Streamlined Legal Research

Legal research is an essential yet time-consuming component of our profession. LLMs type GPT models can efficiently identify relevant legal authorities and summarize their key points, sparing you countless hours poring over case law, statutes, and regulations. It is a welcome reprieve from the laborious research process.

But beware of the time limitations of LLMs. For instances, ChatGPT-4 is based on information ending in September 2021. This problem applies across the board to all LLM tools. From what I have heard, the time issue may never be solved completely for LLMs. It is an inherent limitation, but still, OpenAI will soon release user-controlled Internet supplements to update research. These modifications are not out yet, so I cannot comment on how this may work.

Right now the time limitation is an especially big problem for legal research. When ChatGPT- 3.5 first came out in November 2022, I asked it about the top ten cases in 2022, just to see what would happen. It answered the question with complete confidence and no warnings (that has since changed), and made things up. It used prr-2022 cases, not too surprising, but it also invented cases that did not exist! That is another current problem with the GPT models so far, they can do what Ai experts call – hallucinate. Hallucinations can happen outside of the time limit questions too. The Ai just makes things up. ChatGPT-3.5 actually hallucinated a judge in my 2022 question. It created a name that, as far as I could see by Google research, was not tied to any judge in the country. I spent a fair amount of time to verify that, as I could not believe that was even possible.

Eventually, the sanity and time issues will be mitigated. (I understand the sanity issue is not systemic and should be fixed soon with better engineering.) The answer on the Chat GPT search problems may, once again, be “multi-modal” search. You may need to use other kinds of search too, like Google or Lexis, especially for the “breaking news” type of case law. Sort of like a new kind of sheperdizing, a word that has long puzzled lay-persons when they hear lawyers talk. Still, having an Ai bot by your side to provide Answers, not just Search, will be a big benefit, especially after we get the kinks out.

  1. Efficient Document Drafting

Legal document drafting can be a painstaking task. LLMs can generate templates and suggest appropriate language based on the case specifics for a wide range of documents, from contracts to pleadings and memos. The result is a more efficient and effective drafting process, allowing you to focus on other critical aspects of your practice.

  1. Enhanced Legal Analysis

Imagine an AI assistant capable of analyzing legal issues, identifying potential arguments, and even anticipating counterarguments. LLM GPT models can provide such insights, helping you prepare for litigation or negotiations with a newfound level of confidence. Ride on the shoulders of your Ai Bots and they can make you look good. They can whisper in your ear too, like a muse to provide new ideas. So ride an Ai, but let an Ai Bot ride on your shoulders too. That’s a hybrid, recursive, win/win loop,

  1. Due Diligence Reinvented

Due diligence is a vital yet arduous aspect of the legal profession. GPT models can significantly streamline this process by identifying potential risks, analyzing contracts, and reviewing regulatory compliance with increased efficiency and accuracy. This AI-powered assistance can prove to be indispensable in managing complex due diligence tasks.

  1. Revolutionizing Contract Review

Contract review can be a laborious process riddled with revisions and potential issues. LLMs can automate contract review by extracting key terms, identifying potential issues, and suggesting possible amendments. This technological innovation can lead to more effective and efficient contract management. Prompt the Bots to do the boring stuff for you.

  1. E-Discovery Reimagined

As a specialist in e-Discovery, I can speak with confidence about the strong potential of LLM GPT models in this domain. They can be trained to sift through vast data sets, identify relevant documents, and detect otherwise hidden patterns or inconsistencies. This AI-driven approach can improve the e-Discovery process and results. It is not quite there yet, but should be soon, after issues of confidentiality and humans-in-the-loop training are resolved. Bots are great at reading at near light-speed and they never forget. Contract review attorneys who used to stare at docs all day and code them, your days are numbered. Better take you buggy-whips and retool as Bot trainers.

  1. Case Management Mastery

Managing multiple cases can be an organizational challenge. LLMs can help you stay on top of your workload by organizing and managing case information, tracking deadlines, maintaining client communication, and generating reports. The result is a more streamlined and efficient practice.

  1. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Enhanced

LLMs can provide valuable support in ADR processes, such as mediation and arbitration. By summarizing parties’ positions, identifying potential areas of agreement, and suggesting possible resolutions, AI-driven tools can contribute significantly to the successful resolution of disputes.

  1. AI-Driven Legal Education and Training

LLMs can be used to create educational materials, such as case summaries, hypothetical scenarios, or legal analysis, to help train lawyers and law students. This innovative approach can augment traditional legal education and professional development, opening the door to new possibilities in teaching and learning.

  1. Client Communication Elevated

Lets face it – legal jargon can be confusing for clients. But with GPT models, you can draft clear, concise, and easy-to-understand explanations of complex legal issues. Plus, you can generate timely responses to client inquiries, ensuring they feel valued and supported. You’ll become the go-to lawyer for clients seeking both tech sophistication and a human touch in a world of legal complexities.


In conclusion, we have presented ten ways in which LLMs like Open AI’s GPT models can, with your help and active participation, revolutionize the practice of law. These AI technologies can make our work more efficient, accurate, and even enjoyable. And let’s not forget a special shout-out to ChatGPT-4 for its assistance in crafting this essay!

Remember, the legal profession is ever-evolving, and embracing these cutting-edge tools can give you a competitive edge in the marketplace. Don’t be left behind; instead, join the AI revolution and reap the benefits. Your clients (and your sanity) will thank you.

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